Note: The IPython notebook for this post can be seen here.
Here we will try to understand the reparameterization trick used by Kingma and Welling (2014)1 to train their variational autoencoder.
Assume we have a normal distribution that is parameterized by , specifically . We want to solve the below problem
This is of course a rather silly problem and the optimal is obvious. But here we just want to understand how the reparameterization trick helps in calculating the gradient of this objective .
The usual way to calculate is as follows
which makes use of . This trick is also the basis of the REINFORCE2 algorithm used in policy gradient.
For our example where , this method gives
Reparameterization trick is a way to rewrite the expectation so that the distribution with respect to which we take the expectation is independent of parameter . To achieve this, we need to make the stochastic element in independent of . Hence, we write as
Then, we can write
where is the distribution of , i.e., . Now we can write the derivative of as follows
Now let us compare the variances of the two methods; we are hoping to see that the first method has high variance while reparameterization trick decreases the variance substantially.
Let us plot the variance for different sample sizes.
[ 3.8409546 3.97298803 4.03007634 3.98531095 3.99579423] [ 3.97775271 4.00232825 3.99894536 4.00353734 3.99995899] [ 6.45307927e+00 6.80227241e-01 8.69226368e-02 1.00489791e-02 8.62396526e-04] [ 4.59767676e-01 4.26567475e-02 3.33699503e-03 5.17148975e-04 4.65338152e-05]
Variance of the estimates using reparameterization trick is one order of magnitude smaller than the estimates from the first method!